Lipopolysaccharides (LPs) are Gram negative bacilli’s outer membran components which, dued to a microbiota imbalance, go through intestinal barrier stimulating non-specific innate immunity.
Loss of microbiote mutualism or conflict or/and increase of intestinal permeability leaded by this loss, promotes LPs translocation into systemic circulation.
LPs stimulates TLR-4 (Toll Like Receptor of type 4) present on all immune cells but also in much lower quantity on several organ cells including liver, pancreas, kidneys, heart, brain and especially hypothalamus, adipose tissue and endothelial cells.
TLR-4 stimulation promotes :
- Visceral fat
- Metabolic syndrome, obesity
- Atheroma, CAD (coronary artery diseases) and heart failure (CHF)
- Neurodegenerative diseases