Adiponectin is a 230 amino acids protein secreted almost exclusively by adipose tissue, unlike leptin, its plasma level is inversely correlated to the subject’s fat mass.
body fat mass
Adiponectin produces beneficial physiological effects on the majority of the body tissues, promoting glucose homeostasis, and preferential lipid oxidation. Further more, it exerts an anti-apoptotic effect by reducing ceramide through AMPKinase activation. High levels of ceramide are found in plasma and tissue in diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.
Conversely, reduced levels of adiponectin are associated with metabolic syndromes, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. Loss of weight, physical exercise increase Adiponectin and its plasma level.